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Enzyme Catalase Labs

Varibles that affect Enzyme Catalysis Reaction Rates Introduction Molecules are constantly moving in our bodies and in nature. When molecules move fast enough they collide into one another, allowing chemical reactions to occur. Factors such as temperature and concentrations can either help increase or decrease these reactions.

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(Jubenville. ) Enzymes are known as catalyst because they are able to speed up reaction rates without being destroyed or altered. They are able to encourage chemical reactions by decreasing the energy of activation.

The main function of enzyme catalase is to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in our bodies into oxygen and water. This can be visually seen when hydrogen peroxide is put on a wound and the peroxide bubbles. Enzymes can also be found in plant cells and fungi. (Huston. ) In this experiment we test the many variables that can change the rate of this reaction such as temperature, concentration levels of enzyme catalase and pH values. We are able to track these changes using an O2 Gas Sensor. (Enzymes. ) It is predicted that the rate of reaction will increase with temperature, pH levels and concentration. Methods

Three test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water. 10 drops of enzymes suspension was then added to the Naigene chamber for each observation. Test tubes one, two and three were added to the Naigene chamber respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Gas Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. The results were recorded. To study the effects of enzyme concentration on rate of reaction, four test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water.

For each test observation 5, 10, 15 and 20 drops of enzyme catalase were placed in the Naigene chamber. The four test tubes were then added respectively. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Gas Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To test the effect of temperature on reaction rate, three test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water. For each observation 10 drops of enzyme catalase was added to the Naigene chamber. Test tube one was placed in ice (temperature of 0-5 C). Test tube wo was placed in room temperature (20-25 C). Test tube three was placed in warm water (30-35 C). Each test tube was held in this environment for five minutes. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Gas Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To measure the effect of pH on catalase activity, three test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of the appropriate pH buffer. Test tube one was filled with 5 mL of pH 4. Test tube two was filled with 5 mL of pH 7. Test tube three was filled with 5 mL of pH 10.

Ten drops of enzyme catalase was added to the Naigene chamber and test tube one, two and three were added respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber and was swirled for 60 seconds. The O2 Gas Sensor then recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To measure the effect of different substrare concentrations on catalase reactions, three test tubes were used and labeled one, two and three. Test tube one was filled with 3 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 7 mL of water. Test tube two was filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water.

Test tube three was filled with 7 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 3 mL of water. 10 drops of catalase suspension was placed in the Naigene bottle for each observation. Test tube one, two and three were then added to the Naigene chamber respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber and was swirled for 60 seconds. The O2 Gas Sensor then recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. Results Figure 1 Test Tube Number| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 0. 085282| 2| 0. 074574| 3| 0. 09223| Figure 1: The average reaction rate of the enzyme concentration.

Figure 2 Test Tube| Drops of enzyme suspension| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 5| 0. 060459| 2| 10| 0. 071033| 3| 15| 0. 0966| 4| 20| 0. 15003| Figure 2: Changes in reaction rate due to the enzyme concentration. Figure 3 Test Tube| Temperature measured| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 0-5 C| 0. 038694| 2| 20-25 C| 0. 084487| 3| 30-35 C| 0. 065194| Figure 3: Changes in reaction rate due to the effects of different temperatures. Figure 4 Test Tube| pH level| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 4| 0. 013519| 2| 7| 0. 045141| 3| 10| 0. 049314|

Figure 4: Changes in reaction rate due to the pH level of the solution. Figure 5 Test Tube| Amount of H2O2| Amount of H2O| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 3| 7| 0. 027672| 2| 5| 5| 0. 09168| 3| 7| 3| 0. 1087| Figure 5: Changes in reaction rate due to different ratios of 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O) In figure 1, we can see that the figures for each test were relatively the same. This is because the amount and type of chemicals used in each test were the same. Figure two shows the initial rate of reaction increasing as the amount of enzyme suspension increases.

This evidence demonstrates that the enzyme suspension allowed the reaction to occur more rapidly. Figure 3 demonstrates how temperature can play a role in rate of reaction. Our figures show that showed that rate of reaction was at a peak when in medium temperatures. Various levels of pH also played a role in rate of reaction. Figure 4 demonstrates that the higher the pH level, the faster reaction rate was. Figure 5 demonstrates that different ratios of H2O2 and H2O can alter the rate of reaction. The higher amounts of H2O2 allowed higher reaction rates then the lower concentrated amounts.

Discussion Enzymes are responsible for almost all chemical reactions that take place. They are made up of proteins and are considered biocatalysts. (Jubenville. ) Biocatalysts can be described as when enzymes are used as catalysts to cause chemical reactions. (Novasep. ) Enzymes are known as catalyst because they are able to speed up reaction rates without being destroyed or altered. They are able to encourage chemical reactions by decreasing the energy of activation. (Huston. ) Enzymes attract substrates to their surface allowing chemical reactions to occur.

Every enzyme haves reactive sites which allow very specific chemical reactions. The shape of the reactive site on the enzyme and the shape of the reactive site on the substrate must completely match in order for them to attract to one another. (Jubenville. ) Enzyme catalase can be found in various places of our bodies and nature. The main function of enzyme catalase is to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in our bodies into oxygen and water. This can be visually seen when hydrogen peroxide is put on a wound and the peroxide bubbles. (Huston. ) It can also be found in nature in plants and fungi.

These molecules are constantly moving. When moving fast enough they collide into one another, allowing chemical reactions to occur. Factors such as temperature and concentrations can either help decrease or increase these reactions. Concentration of enzyme catalase for example, plays a huge role of how much oxygen will be broken down. Concentrations of enzyme catalase can also increase chances of a chemical reaction occurring because there are more molecules available to do the job. The higher concentration of enzyme catalase used, the more oxygen will be released during reaction.

The temperatures of the environment in which these reactions take place also play a crucial role on the reaction. Heat for example, speeds up the movement of molecules allowing more of a chance for them to collide and cause a chemical reaction. (Jubenville. ) pH factors also change reaction rates. pH stands for power of hydrogen and measures the concentration on hydrogen ions in a solution. (Hyperphysics. ) The higher the concentration, the more hydrogen ions available to be broken down by enzymes. The more hydrogen or hydrogen eroxide in a solution, the more oxygen being released during the reaction. It was expected that reaction rates would increase with higher concentrations of H2O2, pH levels, temperatures and ratios. This was all proven true through our observations of our experiment.

Works Cited “Biocatalysis: Definition of Biocatalysis in Novasep Glossary. ” Biocatalysis: Definition of Biocatalysis in Novasep Glossary. Novasep, 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://www. novasep. com/misc/glossary. asp? defId=49>. (Novasep. ) “Enzymes. ” Enzymes. Tuberose, n. d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www. uberose. com/Enzymes. html>. (Enzymes. ) “Frequently Asked Questions A» Learn A» Houston Enzymes. ” Frequently Asked Questions A» Learn A» Houston Enzymes. Huston Enzymes, 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://www. houston-enzymes. com/learn/faq. php>. (Huston. ) Jubenville, Robert B. , and Richard G. Thomas. General Biology Laboratory Manual. Third ed. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 2008. Print. (Jubenville. ) “PH. ” As a Measure of Acid and Base Properties. Hyperphysics, n. d. Web. 5 Oct. 2012. <http://hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/hbase/chemical/ph. html>. (Hyperphysics. )